What the synthesis of protein in the body depends on - interchangeable and irreplaceable amino acids, complete and defective proteins

As known, protein is the main building material of all organs and tissues of the human body. All processes in the body proceed with his participation. All cells of the body have the ability to constantly synthesize and maintain the necessary level of protein, but not always they succeed. Protein synthesis is influenced by the physical and emotional state of a person, age and, of course, nutritional quality. 

The properties of a protein are determined by what amino acid residues are included in its composition. Protein, as a food product, is not valuable in itself, but the value of its constituent amino Hormones & Peptides - How Testosterone & Hormone Injections Work acids. In nature, there are about 170 amino acid residues, but most often only twenty are part of proteins. From these 20 amino acids, our cells are able to collect all the peptides necessary for the body.

Plants have the ability to independently synthesize all 20 amino acids. But animals and humans can synthesize only 12 amino acids, called interchangeable. The remaining 8 amino acids called irreplaceable, must come to us from the outside in finished form with food containing protein (since animals and humans lack the enzyme responsible for their formation). 

  • TO 12 essential amino acids relate: glycine, alanine, proline, serine, cysteine, aspartate, asparagine, glutamate, glutamine, tyrosine, histidine, arginine. 
  • TO 8 essential amino acids relate: isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, valine.

Complete proteins

Complete proteins

 It should be noted that the classification of interchangeable and essential amino acids is not without drawbacks. So, for young children, another amino acid is indispensable, because not synthesized by a child’s body - histidine. Insofar as tyrosine synthesized from phenylalanine, andcysteine - from methionine, then tyrosine and cysteine can also be considered essential amino acids. Production Speed ??Limitations arginine this amino acid is also allowed to be assigned to the group of irreplaceable.

In this way, in nutrition, the key is not the amount of protein, but its quality - the amino acid composition.

The full value of protein products is largely determined by the content of essential amino acids in them. 
If the protein molecule contains all eight essential amino acids in quantities that meet the needs of a person at any age, the proteins are called full. They are most needed by the body.

Sources of complete proteins - these are mainly animal products: milk, dairy products, cottage cheese, eggs, fish, meat.

Defective Proteins

Defective Proteins

Inferior proteins, respectively, do not contain all of the essential amino acids. If the protein component of our nutrition is represented only by such proteins, then over time our protein synthesis will be disrupted.

Sources of Defective Proteins - This is cereals, vegetables, mushrooms, nuts. 

Most plant foods contain defective protein. Adherents of vegetarianism should diversify their daily diet as much as possible, including as many different protein-containing foods as possible. Even in this case, it is unlikely that it will be possible to provide the body with all the essential amino acids in the required amount. It is advisable for vegetarians to artificially enrich their diet with essential amino acids in the form of special nutritional supplements or peptide bioregulators.

It should also be considered:

  • proteins of plant products are absorbed worse than animals (according to Russian scientists, the digestibility of plant proteins is 62–80%, and that of proteins from mushrooms is 20–40%);
  • the nutritional value of protein products (especially meat) decreases with prolonged storage;
  • prolonged and intensive heat treatment (for example, strong frying or long digestion) also reduce the nutritional value of proteins;
  • repeated freezing and thawing, the addition of preservatives, etc. destroy the natural structure of fragile protein molecules; the nutritional value of frozen meat is at least 40% lower than the same unfrozen product.

Below is a fragment of the transfer “About the most important thing”. Dr. Agapkin - "What are amino acids and how they affect our health"


What happens to amino acids and proteins when they enter the human body

Once in the stomach, food protein under the influence of gastric juice and an enzyme called pepsin begins to break down. An important feature of pepsin is its ability to break down collagen protein. Collagen is the main component of the intercellular connective tissue of meat; Therefore, in order to break down meat proteins with digestive system enzymes, it is first necessary to digest collagen threads. With a lack of pepsin in the human gastric juice, collagen will be digested worse and, as a result, the meat eaten will be processed worse by other digestive enzymes, which means that it will not be digested properly.

Under the influence of pepsin, long chains of amino acids break up into shorter ones. This process is only the beginning of protein breakdown and provides no more than 10-20% of complete protein digestion.

The partially digested protein then passes from the stomach to the upper parts of the small intestine, to the duodenum and jejunum, where it is exposed to enzymes secreted by the pancreas. Here, first, the protein molecules are split into small polypeptides, then a small percentage of the protein molecules are digested to amino acids. Most proteins are split into dipeptides and tripeptides (consisting of two to three amino acids).

At the final stage of protein digestion, 99% of the remaining dipeptides and tripeptides are broken down into individual amino acids, which are absorbed into the blood and transferred to the liver. Then part of the amino acids again enters the bloodstream and is carried throughout the body, part of them is used to synthesize a protein, some of the amino acids are transformed into other amino acids or decomposed to release energy.

The danger of insufficient intake of protein and essential amino acids

Famous nutritionist Mikhail Ginsburg in his book “Losing weight together - losing weight correctly” writes:

  • "In the absence of protein or its insufficient content in food protein starvation develops, and the body is seeking a way out destroy their own cells - muscle, blood, liver, kidney, skin cells. Without fail, immunity suffers. Hence the conclusion ... we should by no means allow for protein deficiency. Is it dangerous."

Signs of insufficient protein intake from food during fasting Exercises on the back of the thigh and buttocks at home, in the gym. Training program, a low-protein or amino acid-unbalanced diet may include a decrease in appetite, deterioration of the skin, hair loss, muscle weakness, fatigue, decreased immunity, anemia, etc. Deficiency of certain amino acids can occur with prolonged observance of Christian fasts.

Child nutrition

It is especially undesirable to transfer children and adolescents to a vegetarian diet, since during a period of rapid growth, the body needs a large number of amino acids as plastic material to build muscle proteins, blood vessels, the nervous system, skin and other tissues and organs. If meat and other food of animal origin are excluded from the diet, it is necessary to replace it with food that is similar in nutritional value and plan the diet correctly. Since these conditions are difficult to fulfill, at least the nutrition of children should be as diverse as possible in the content of products of both plant and animal origin. Long-term deficiency of amino acids in childhood inevitably leads to a lag in mental and physical development.

It should also be noted that in addition to proteins, the food of children, and especially adolescents, should contain a sufficient amount of animal fats. This is due to the fact that in mammals, the source of the formation of steroid hormones (including sex) is cholesterol, and it, in turn, is found in animal fats (not in vegetable fats!). Therefore, during puberty, adolescents are extremely undesirable to be on a diet that excludes animal fats.

The body's resistance to infectious diseases, their frequency, course, outcome, and development of immunity, largely depend on the quantity and quality of protein in the diet and on its ratio with other food components. 
With insufficient protein nutrition, infectious diseases and inflammatory processes are characterized by a sluggish course, delayed regeneration, and the number of secondary infections increases sharply. Despite a sluggish, almost asymptomatic course, mortality among people who received an insufficient amount of protein increased sharply.

In modern conditions, it is very difficult to establish proper nutrition, which ensures constant synthesis and maintenance of the required protein level. The bulk of people in one way or another is experiencing protein deficiency. The output in this situation will be application peptide bioregulators, especially for the weakened and middle-aged. Peptides give cells the opportunity to regain the ability to synthesize the necessary proteins and fully perform their functions. but protein building material are amino acids. Therefore, they should also be periodically included in your diet.

Peptide complexes

• natural peptide bioregulators Cytomax
• synthesized peptide bioregulators Cytogenes
• liquid natural bioregulators PC
• Peptide preparations multicomponent Revilab Peptide ML
• Sublingual peptide complexes Revilab SL

Amino Acid Complexes


Amvix - vitamins and amino acidsModern complex preparation Amvix designed specifically for people experiencing psycho-emotional, mental and physical stress. Amvix instant tablets contain the components necessary for the normal functioning of the nervous system and metabolic processes.

dextrose, dry orange juice, croscarmellose sodium, citric acid, eleutherococcus root extract, ascorbic acid (vitamin C), taurine, beta-alanine, glutamic acid, BCAA complex (valine, leucine, isoleucine), carnitine, aspartic acid, arginine, natural sweetener steviazide, flavoring natural orange, vitamin PP (nicotinamide), vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol), vitamin A (retinol palmitate), vitamin B6 (pyridoxine hydrochloride), vitamin B9 (folic acid).


Ensil - A powerful tool for the prevention of cancer.

Ensil - vitamins, amino acids, antioxidantsComposition: 
L-Carnitine, L-Cysteine, succinic acid, echinacea extract, vitamin premix (containing vitamins: A, B1, B2, B5, B6, B12, C, D3, E, folic acid, nicotinamide, biotin), coenzyme Q10.

Recommended by:
• immunodeficiencies of various origins 
• cancer prevention 
• rehabilitation after serious injuries and past illnesses 
• rehabilitation after a heart attack and stroke 
• pre- and postoperative period 
• degenerative diseases of the joints and spine 
• chronic respiratory diseases 
• chronic diseases of the digestive tract and urinary tract 
• violations of redox processes in the body 
• hypovitaminosis 
• increased physical activity 
• metabolic disorders 
• Prevention of premature aging

Temero genero - a set of components to improve the functioning of the neuroendocrine and immune systems. Its action is aimed at harmonizing the work of the pineal gland, thymus, liver, spleen and brain.

glutamic acid, aspartic acid, glycine, alanine, lysine, 5-HTP proline (5-hydroxytryptophan), choline, folic acid (vitamin B9), calcium, magnesium, zinc
Temero Genero - amino acid complex
• restores biorhythms and immunity
• regulates neuro-endocrine balance
• normalizes the exchange of neurotransmitters
• stimulates tissue regeneration
• promotes detoxification
• prolongs youth and slows down aging

Recommended by:
• to strengthen the immune system
• with neuro-endocrine disorders
• in the complex correction of depressive disorders
• to increase the overall vitality
• to stimulate regeneration processes
• for sleep disorders
• in programs Exercises in the gym 1. Slimming for the treatment of alcohol and drug addiction


Reviplant - BCAA amino acids

Reviplant  shown with increased physical exertion, to correct metabolic processes, reduce pain. The composition of Reviplant includes a complex of amino acids, as well as a highly effective phytocomplex that reduces the effect on the human body of various toxic effects.

Reviplant has no analogues not only in the Russian, but also in the foreign market.

water, fructose, concentrated rosehip juice, amino acids: valine, leucine, isoleucine, arginine, taurine; extracts: artichoke, dogrose, burdock, leuzea, chaga; citric acid, sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate.

Recommended by:
• prevention and compensation of secondary immunodeficiency conditions caused by radiation and chemical factors 
• increase the body's resistance to intoxication, infections, radiation 
• to improve the well-being of cancer patients 
• correction of metabolic processes, reduction of pain 
• improved tolerance to chemoradiotherapy 
• increasing the effectiveness of the treatment of cancer patients.


The remedy for neurosis with amino acids

The drug Felicita has a beneficial effect on the work cardiovascular and nervous systems.

Recommended by: 
• during a period of intense psychoemotional stress
• with neurosis, apathy, depression and chronic fatigue
• during physical and mental stress.

magnesium carbonate, vitamin premix (containing vitamins: C, B1, B6, B12, PP, calcium pantothenate, folic acid, biotin); cloves, basil, lecithin, cinnamon, tyrosine, arginine, phenylalanine, 5-hydroxytryptophan, calcium stearate (anti-caking agent).

Unique anti-toxic drug Lykam

Likam - an anti-toxicological drug

Recommended by:
• for oncological diseases as part of complex therapy
• with pain
• to strengthen the vascular wall
• to strengthen the body and increase immunity

MCC (carrier), glycine, arginine, natural coniferous complex, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, alanine, lycopene, astragalus root extract, resveratrol, 5-hydroxytryptophan, aerosil (anti-caking agent), calcium stearate (anti-caking agent).


A drug Previn It has a powerful antioxidant and angioprotective effect, dilates blood vessels, improves microcirculation, helps to remove venous stasis, strengthens the walls of blood vessels and capillaries, reduces blood pressure, thereby preventing the development of stroke and heart attack. 
Nicotinic acid, which is part of the drug, is actively involved in redox processes that turn sugar and fat into energy, favorably affects lipid metabolism and helps lower blood cholesterol.

Previn - prevention of heart attack and strokeComposition:
L-arginine, hesperidin, lactose (filler), choline bitartrate, green tea extract, nicotinamide (vitamin PP), aerosil (anti-caking agent), calcium stearate (anti-caking agent).

Recommended by:
• as an additional source of hesperidin and nicotinamide
• as a vasodilator and antioxidant
• for the prevention of stroke and heart attack
• to lower blood cholesterol
• to strengthen the walls of blood vessels and increase blood flow

amino acids, essential amino, essential amino acids, anti-caking agent, amino acid